Guest post by Henry Burke
It will cost Iowa $184 million (net amount) to implement the Common Core Standards (CCS). Where will Iowa find $184 million to implement the mediocre Common Core Standards?
I will call your attention to an excellent Pioneer Institute report, "National Cost of Aligning States and Localities to the Common Core Standards," dated February 2012 (PI report) and my report, "States’ Taxpayers Cannot Afford Common Core Standards.”
I encourage you to realistically evaluate the costs versus the benefits for the State of Iowa. I will focus only on the cost of implementing the Common Core Standards (CCS) versus the dollar awards received from the federal government.
I thought I would offer a little insight into the CCS implementation costs. This explanation includes the Pioneer report figures and my assumptions. Obviously, I cannot speak for the Pioneer Institute nor its partners in the white paper, Accountability Works and Pacific Research Institute. These are strictly my thoughts, assumptions and calculations.
The Pioneer Institute (PI) report identified four cost categories for CCS implementation. The categories are: Testing, Professional Development, Textbooks, and Technology. Pioneer calculated the total CCS implementation cost over a 7-year time period.
The PI report included bar graphs (without dollar figures) for each state in Professional Development, Textbooks, and Technology. The Appendices to the PI report showed exact dollar figures for each state in only the Textbooks and Technology categories. This is the link to the Pioneer Institute Appendices.
Consequently, I had to derive figures for Testing and Professional Development for each of the 46 states. My goal was to duplicate the Pioneer figures as closely as possible. My nationwide totals for the four categories agree quite closely with the Pioneer Institute report.
A. Iowa CCS Loss
The State of Iowa submitted a proposal to the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE) for Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the Race to the Top (RTTT) program and received a rank of No. 24 in Phase 1 and a rank of No. 22 in Phase 2 of that competition. The 12 "winning" states under Phase 1 and Phase 2 of RTTT received a total of $3.94 billion. Iowa did not receive any funds under the Phase 1 and 2 competitions. In subsequent competitions, Iowa received $9,035,380 ($9.035 million) for competitive stimulus awards.
In the Burke Table 1, CCS Loss Per State, the CCS Total Cost for Iowa is $192.565 million; and the federal competitive award total is $9.035 million. The difference is $183.530 million.
[$192.565 million - $9.035 million = $183.530 million]
This means Iowa will have to find $184 million to pay for the implementation expense of CCS.
B. Iowa CCS Cost
In the Burke Table 2 (See below) , CCS Cost Per Student, we can see that Iowa has a CCS Cost per Student of $392. This is slightly above the average cost per student of $379 (average cost for the 46 CCS states).
Table 3, Total CCS Cost, lists the components making up the Total CCS Cost of $192.565 million for Iowa. Testing cost is $14.596 million; Professional Development cost is $69.211 million; Textbook cost is $28.483 million; and Technology cost is $80.275 million.
In round numbers, Iowa will spend $15 million on Testing, $69 million on Professional Development, $29 million on Textbooks, and $80 million on Technology. The Total CCS Cost for Iowa will be $193 million.
Explanation of Figures
a. Nationwide CCS testing Cost
Testing is a function of the number of students tested. Table 5 in my report shows the Total Nationwide Cost for the 46 CCS states. My Table 5 duplicates Pioneer Figure 2B (on page 2 of the PI report). Figure 2B shows a Total Testing Cost of $1,240,641,297.
Table 6 (Burke report) lists the number of students and teachers in each of the 46 states; the total for the 46 states is 41,805,062 students. I obtained all of the numbers in Table 6 from the Pioneer report Appendices (NCES: 2009 – 2010 School Year).
When I divided $1,240,641,297 by 41,805,062 students, I obtained a factor of $29.67681993 per student. This Testing cost factor was applied to each of the 46 states to get the Testing cost for each state. My Total Testing Cost of $1,240.641 million agrees with the Pioneer Figure 2B number.
b. Iowa CCS Testing Cost
Iowa has a total student enrollment of 491,842 students (Burke Table 6). When I multiplied 491,842 students by the $29.6768 factor per student, I obtained $14.596 million.
[491,842 students x $29.67681993 per student = $14,596,306]
2. Professional Development
The purpose of Professional Development is to train the teachers on the new Common Core academic standards. Professional Development is a function of the number of teachers that must be trained. Pioneer used a Professional Development cost of $1,931 per teacher.
Iowa has 35,842 teachers (Burke Table 6). When I multiplied 35,842 teachers by $1,931 per teacher, I obtained $69.211 million.
[35,842 teachers x $1,931 per teacher = $69,210,902]
Incidentally, my calculations produced a Professional Development Cost forCalifornia of $605.938 million. The PI report bar graph showed the number $606 million for California. This verifies that my calculation assumptions and methodology are correct.
I obtained the Textbook cost for Iowa directly from the Pioneer Institute Appendix. The Table in the Appendix showed a Total Textbook Cost for Iowa of $28,483,017 ($28.483 million).
The PI Appendix listed the following numbers for Textbooks and Instructional Materials:
Iowa Textbook Cost (Millions of Dollars)
|Subtotal – 7-8||4.223|
|Subtotal – 9-12||9.698|
I obtained the Technology cost for Iowa directly from the Pioneer Appendix. The PI Appendix lists the Total Technology Cost for Iowa as $80,274,926 ($80.275 million).
The PI Appendix provides the following information:
Iowa Technology Cost (Millions of Dollars)
|Description||Technology Cost (Millions)||Total Technology Cost (Millions)|
|Year 1 Operations||3.441||3.441|
|Years 2-7 Operations (Annual)||7.32258||-|
|Total for 6 Years (Years 2-7)||43.935||43.935|
|Total Technology Cost||8.275|
C. Urgency of Decision
We know that the total cost to implement CCS in Iowa will be $192.565 million ($193 million), but we have not said anything about the timing. The timing for the expenditures is extremely important!
A sizeable portion of the total CCS implementation cost is spent early in the implementation. In the Pioneer Report Figure 2B, two-thirds (about 66 %) of the Total Cost falls into the up-front, one-time cost period. Pioneer shows a one-time cost of $10,522,885,028; the Total Cost is $15,835,121,347. When I divide these two numbers, I get 66 %.
For Iowa, the figures are as follows:
Timing of Iowa CCS Costs (Millions of Dollars
|Cost Category||Up-Front One-Time
|Years 1-7 Cost
|Total Cost: Up-front & Years-1-7 (Millions)|
|Percentage of Total||68%||32%||100%|
As this table shows, 68 % of the total cost ($130.593 million) is incurred as an up-front, one-time cost. If Iowa has any interest in dropping the CCS, the state should act very soon. Much of the CCS implementation expense (68 %) hits very early in the process. If the state delays the decision to drop CCS, it could waste $131 million on a system that it is not going to use. The decision is urgent!